[AI] (Tech Dose of the Day) VLAN, Folksonomy, Blu-ray Disc, Phishing, DYA, Semantic Web, LAMP and much much more!
chandrashekhar.hello at gmail.com
Fri Jan 25 08:49:53 EST 2008
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On 1/25/08, vishnu ramchandani <vishnuhappy at yahoo.com> wrote:
> Tech Dose of the Day
> VLAN, Folksonomy, Blu-ray Disc, Phishing, DYA (Dynamic
> Architecture), Semantic Web, LAMP, etc.
> Contributed by M&E (Media & Entertainment Delivery)
> Group (MphasiS Software Services)
> What is VLAN?
> A Virtual LAN, commonly known as a VLAN, is a group of
> hosts with a common set of requirements that
> communicate as if they were attached to the same wire,
> regardless of their physical location. A VLAN has the
> same attributes as a physical LAN, but it allows for
> end stations to be grouped together even if they are
> not located on the same LAN segment. Network
> reconfiguration can be done through software instead
> of physically relocating devices.
> Why are VLANs required?
> In a legacy network, users were assigned to networks
> based on geography and were limited by physical
> topologies and distances. By using VLAN, one can
> logically group networks and is no longer restricted
> by physical distance. This includes high-speed
> technologies such as:
> Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Fiber Distributed
> Data Interface (FDDI), Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
> and 10-Gigabit Ethernet.
> By using VLAN, one can control traffic patterns and
> react quickly to relocations. VLANs provide the
> flexibility to adapt to changes in network
> requirements and allow for simplified administration.
> Additionally, VLANs provide an increased security
> measure and the ability to limit broadcasts.
> The protocol used in configuring virtual LANs is IEEE
> Virtual LANs operate at Layer 2 (the data link layer)
> of the OSI model.
> VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) maintains VLAN
> configuration consistency across the entire network.
> VTP uses Layer 2 trunk frames to manage the addition,
> deletion, and renaming of VLANs on a network-wide
> basis from a centralized switch in the VTP server
> mode. VTP is responsible for synchronizing VLAN
> information within a VTP domain and reduces the need
> to configure the same VLAN information on each switch.
> VTP minimizes the possible configuration
> inconsistencies that arise when changes are made.
> These inconsistencies can result in security
> violations, because VLANs can crossconnect when
> duplicate names are used. They also could become
> internally disconnected when they are mapped from one
> LAN type to another, for example, Ethernet to ATM LANE
> ELANs or FDDI 802.10 VLANs. VTP provides a mapping
> scheme that enables seamless trunking within a network
> employing mixed-media technologies.
> VTP provides the following benefits:
> VLAN configuration consistency across the network,
> Mapping scheme that allows a VLAN to be trunked over
> mixed media, Accurate tracking and monitoring of
> VLANs, Dynamic reporting of added VLANs across the
> network and Plug-and-play configuration when adding
> new VLANs.
> Further References
> Wikipedia -
> VLAN FAQ -
> Some more info -
> What is Folksonomy?
> Folksonomy is also known as collaborative tagging,
> social classification, social indexing and social
> tagging. Folksonomy is the practice and method of
> collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate
> and categorize content.
> A folksonomy is a user-generated taxonomy used to
> categorize and retrieve web content such as web
> resources, online photographs and web links, using
> open-ended labels called tags. A folksonomy is most
> notably contrasted from a taxonomy in that the authors
> of the labeling system are often the main users (and
> sometimes originators) of the content to which the
> labels are applied. The labels are commonly known as
> tags and the labeling process is called tagging. Tags
> help to improve search engine effectiveness because
> content is categorized using a familiar, accessible,
> and shared vocabulary.
> Folksonomy allows users to tag their favorite web
> resources with their chosen words or phrases selected
> from natural language. These tags (also called
> concepts, categories, facets or entities) can be used
> to classify web resources and to express users'
> preferences. Folksonomy is a classification of the
> users, by the users and for the users. The most
> popular, widely used folksonomy-based systems are:
> 1. Del.icio.us:
> 2. CiteULike:
> 3. Connotea:
> 4. Flickr:
> Folksonomies became popular on the Web around 2004
> with social software applications such as social
> bookmarking or annotating photographs. Websites that
> support tagging and the principle of folksonomy are
> referred to in the context of Web 2.0 because
> participation is very easy and tagging data is used in
> new ways to find information. For example, tag clouds
> are frequently used to visualize the most used tags of
> a folksonomy. The term folksonomy is also used to
> denote only the set of tags that are created in social
> Typically, folksonomies are Internet-based, although
> they are also used in other contexts. Folksonomic
> tagging is intended to make a body of information
> increasingly easy to search, discover, and navigate
> over time. A well-developed folksonomy is ideally
> accessible as a shared vocabulary that is both
> originated by, and familiar to, its primary users.
> Folksonomies arise in Web-based communities where
> provisions are made at the site level for creating and
> using tags. These communities are established to
> enable Web users to label and share user-generated
> content, such as photographs, or to collaboratively
> label existing content, such as Web sites, books,
> works in the scientific and scholarly literatures, and
> blog entries.
> What are its problems?
> Four main problems of folksonomy tagging are plurals,
> polysemy, synonymy, and depth (specificity) of
> Plurals: Plurals and parts of speech and spelling can
> undermine a tagging system. For example, if tags Cat
> and Cats are distinct, then a query for one will not
> retrieve both, unless the intelligent search system
> has the capability to perform such replacements built
> into it.
> Polysemy: Polysemy refers to a word that has two or
> more similar meanings. "Poly" means 'many', and "semy"
> means 'meanings'.
> Synonymy: Synonymy, different words with similar or
> identical meanings, presents a greater problem for
> tagging systems because inconsistency among the terms
> used in tagging can make it very difficult for a
> searcher to be sure that all the relevant items have
> been found.
> Depth (specificity) of tagging: Specificity means how
> specific should the user (classifier) be in
> translating a concept into tag(s)? Web resources can
> be tagged to varying levels of specificity, from very
> broad subjects taken only from the title and abstract
> to the paragraph level. The depth of tags refers to
> how many tags there are, relative to a web resource in
> the system.
> Further References
> Wikipedia :
> Folksonomies - Tidying up tags :
> Blu-ray Disc
> What is Blu-ray Disc?
> Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD), is the name
> of a next-generation optical disc format jointly
> developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), a
> group of the world's leading consumer electronics,
> personal computer and media manufacturers (including
> Apple, Dell, Hitachi, HP, JVC, LG, Mitsubishi,
> Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, TDK
> and Thomson). The format was developed to enable
> recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition
> video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data.
> The format offers more than five times the storage
> capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB
> on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc.
> This extra capacity combined with the use of advanced
> video and audio codecs will offer consumers an
> unprecedented HD experience.
> While current optical disc technologies such as DVD,
> DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVD-RAM rely on a red laser to read
> and write data, the new format uses a blue-violet
> laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray. Despite the
> different type of lasers used, Blu-ray products can
> easily be made backwards compatible with CDs and DVDs
> through the use of a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical
> pickup unit. The benefit of using a blue-violet laser
> (405nm) is that it has a shorter wavelength than a red
> laser (650nm), which makes it possible to focus the
> laser spot with even greater precision. This allows
> data to be packed more tightly and stored in less
> space, so it's possible to fit more data on the disc
> even though it's the same size as a CD/DVD. This
> together with the change of numerical aperture to 0.85
> is what enables Blu-ray Discs to hold 25GB/50GB.
> Blu-ray is currently supported by more than 180 of the
> world's leading consumer electronics, personal
> computer, recording media, video game and music
> companies. The format also has broad support from the
> major movie studios as a successor to today's DVD
> format. In fact, seven of the eight major movie
> studios (Disney, Fox, Warner, Paramount, Sony,
> Lionsgate and MGM) have released movies in the Blu-ray
> format and five of them (Disney, Fox, Sony, Lionsgate
> and MGM) are releasing their movies exclusively in the
> Blu-ray format. Many studios have also announced that
> they will begin releasing new feature films on Blu-ray
> Disc day-and-date with DVD, as well as a continuous
> slate of catalog titles every month.
> What is its usefulness, advantages and disadvantages?
> Blu-ray Disc is a high-density optical disc format for
> the storage of digital information, including
> high-definition video. A single-layer Blu-ray disc,
> which is roughly the same size as a DVD, can hold up
> to 27 GB of data -- that's more than two hours of
> high-definition video or about 13 hours of standard
> video. A double-layer Blu-ray disc can store up to 50
> GB, enough to hold about 4.5 hours of high-definition
> video or more than 20 hours of standard video. And
> there are even plans in the works to develop a disc
> with twice that amount of storage double-layer Blu-ray
> disc can store up to 50 GB, enough to hold about 4.5
> hours of high-definition video or more than 20 hours
> of standard video. And there are even plans in the
> works to develop a disc with twice that amount of
> storage. Blu-ray is currently supported by more than
> 180 of the world's leading consumer electronics,
> personal computer, recording media, video game and
> music companies. One of the benefits of Blu-Ray
> technology is that because data is so close together,
> early types of Blu-Ray discs would be contaminated by
> slight scratches. However, a new coating has been
> developed that makes Blu-Ray discs extremely difficult
> to scratch.
> Some of the Advantages of Blu-ray Disc over HD-DVD :-
> • The first is capacity. Because Blu-ray utilizes a
> lens with a greater numerical aperture (NA) than
> HD-DVD, the laser spot can be focused with greater
> precision to fit more data on the same size disc. This
> allows Blu-ray to hold 25GB per layer (50GB on a
> dual-layer disc), whereas HD-DVD can only hold 15GB
> per layer (30GB on a dual-layer disc). Blu-ray has
> also adopted a higher data transfer rate for video and
> audio (54Mbps vs 36.55Mbps). The greater capacity and
> data transfer rates for Blu-ray will allow the movie
> studios to release their movies with higher quality
> video and audio than the HD-DVD format.
> • The second is content. The Blu-ray format has
> received broad support from the major movie studios as
> a successor to today's DVD format. Seven of the eight
> major movie studios (Warner, Paramount, Fox, Disney,
> Sony, MGM and Lionsgate) have released titles for
> Blu-ray, whereas HD-DVD only has support from three
> major movie studios (Warner, Paramount and Universal).
> This is an important difference because some of the
> studios might only support one of the formats, so you
> won't be able to get your favourite movies in the
> other format. Choosing the format with the most
> content support minimizes this risk.
> • The third is hardware support. The Blu-ray format
> has broad support from the world's leading consumer
> electronics, personal computer and media
> manufacturers, including Sony, Panasonic, Philips,
> Samsung, Pioneer, Sharp, JVC, Hitachi, Mitsubishi,
> TDK, Thomson, LG, Apple, HP and Dell. The Blu-ray
> format will also be supported in the next-generation
> PlayStation 3 (PS3) video game console. This means
> that you will have a lot of choice when it comes to
> players and hardware. The HD-DVD format has far fewer
> supporters, so the amount of players and hardware will
> be very limited.
> Some of the Disadvantages :-
> • The disadvantages to Blu-Ray discs are that they are
> quite expensive. For instance, players are selling at
> about the $1,000 mark and DVD discs will be more
> expensive than their standard DVD counterparts.
> • Another disadvantage is that since there are two
> standards, both Blu-Ray and HD, most people are
> sitting on the sidelines to see who the winner is.
> Because Blu-Ray has been developed in part with Sony,
> Sony has included DRM or digital rights management
> that will make it more difficult for people to place
> shift and time shift their content.
> Further References
> What is Phishing?
> Phishing is an attempt to criminally and fraudulently
> acquire sensitive information, such as usernames,
> passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as
> a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
> eBay, PayPal and online banks are common targets.
> Phishing is typically carried out by email or instant
> messaging and often directs users to enter details at
> a website, although phone contact has also been used.
> Phishing is an example of social engineering
> techniques used to fool users. Phishing attacks use
> both social engineering and technical subterfuge to
> steal consumers' personal identity data and financial
> account credentials. Social-engineering schemes use
> 'spoofed' e-mails to lead consumers to counterfeit
> websites designed to trick recipients into divulging
> financial data such as credit card numbers, account
> usernames, passwords and social security numbers.
> Hijacking brand names of banks, e-retailers and credit
> card companies, phishers often convince recipients to
> respond. Technical subterfuge schemes plant crime ware
> onto PCs to steal credentials directly, often using
> Trojan keylogger spyware.
> Phishing techniques:
> Link manipulation
> Most methods of phishing use some form of technical
> deception designed to make a link in an email (and the
> spoofed website it leads to) appear to belong to the
> spoofed organization. Misspelled URLs or the use of
> sub domains are common tricks used by phishers, such
> as this example URL,
> .. Another common trick is to make the anchor text for
> a link appear to be valid, when the link actually goes
> to the phishers' site. An old method of spoofing used
> links containing the '@' symbol, originally intended
> as a way to include a username and password (contrary
> to the standard). For example, the link
> might deceive a casual observer into believing that
> it will open a page on
> whereas it actually directs the browser to a page on
> members.tripod.com, using a username of
> the page opens normally, regardless of the username
> supplied. Such URLs were disabled in Internet
> Explorer, while the Mozilla and Opera web browsers
> opted to present a warning message and give the option
> of continuing to the site or cancelling. A further
> problem with URLs has been found in the handling of
> Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) in web browsers,
> that might allow visually identical web addresses to
> lead to different, possibly malicious, websites.
> Despite the publicity surrounding the flaw, known as
> IDN spoofing or a homograph attack, no known phishing
> attacks have yet taken advantage of it. Phishers have
> taken advantage of a similar risk, using open URL
> redirectors on the websites of trusted organizations
> to disguise malicious URLs with a trusted domain.
> Filter evasion
> Phishers have used images instead of text to make it
> harder for anti-phishing filters to detect text
> commonly used in phishing emails.
> Website forgery:
> Once the victim visits the website the deception is
> in order to alter the address bar. This is done either
> by placing a picture of a legitimate URL over the
> address bar, or by closing the original address bar
> and opening a new one with the legitimate URL. An
> attacker can even use flaws in a trusted website's own
> scripts against the victim. These types of attacks
> (known as cross-site scripting) are particularly
> problematic, because they direct the user to sign in
> at their bank or service's own web page, where
> everything from the web address to the security
> certificates appears correct. In reality, the link to
> the website is crafted to carry out the attack,
> although it is very difficult to spot without
> specialist knowledge. Just such a flaw was used in
> 2006 against PayPal. A Universal Man-in-the-middle
> Phishing Kit, discovered by RSA Security, provides a
> simple-to-use interface that allows a phisher to
> convincingly reproduce websites and capture log-in
> details entered at the fake site.
> Phone phishing:
> Not all phishing attacks require a fake website.
> Messages that claimed to be from a bank told users to
> dial a phone number regarding problems with their bank
> accounts. Once the phone number (owned by the phisher,
> and provided by a Voice over IP service) was dialed,
> prompts told users to enter their account numbers and
> PIN. Voice phishing sometimes uses fake caller-ID data
> to give the appearance that calls come from a trusted
> Phishing examples:
> PayPal phishing example
> An example of a phishing email targeted at PayPal
> users.In an example PayPal phish (right), spelling
> mistakes in the email and the presence of an IP
> address in the link (visible in the tooltip under the
> yellow box) are both clues that this is a phishing
> attempt. Another giveaway is the lack of a personal
> greeting, although the presence of personal details
> would not be a guarantee of legitimacy.
> How can this be prevented?
> There are several different techniques to combat
> phishing, including legislation and technology created
> specifically to protect against phishing.
> Social responses:
> One strategy for combating phishing is to train people
> to recognize phishing attempts, and to deal with them.
> Education can be promising, especially where training
> provides direct feedback.
> Technical responses:
> Anti-phishing measures have been implemented as
> features embedded in browsers, as extensions or
> toolbars for browsers, and as part of website login
> The following are some of the main approaches to the
> • Helping to identify legitimate sites
> • Since phishing is based on impersonation, preventing
> it depends on some reliable way to determine a
> website's real identity. For example, some
> anti-phishing toolbars display the domain name for the
> visited website.
> Browsers alerting users to fraudulent websites.
> Another popular approach to fighting phishing is to
> maintain a list of known phishing sites and to check
> websites against the list.
> Augmenting password logins:
> The Bank of America's website is one of several that
> ask users to select a personal image, and display this
> user-selected image with any forms that request a
> Eliminating phishing mail:
> Spam filters can reduce the number of phishing emails
> that reach their addressees' inboxes.
> Monitoring and takedown:
> Several companies offer banks and other organizations
> likely to suffer from phishing scams round-the-clock
> services to monitor, analyze and assist in shutting
> down phishing websites.
> Further References
> Wikipedia -
> Phishing FAQ -
> DYA (Dynamic Architecture)
> What is Dynamic Architecture?
> Three principles namely -
> • Architecture facilitates change processes
> (Architecture is not a goal in itself, but should
> support the objectives of the business)
> • Just-enough and just-intime architecture
> (Architecture can be developed incrementally) and
> • Permissible deviations from the architecture
> (Non-compliance to the architecture is justifiable in
> certain circumstances)
> are the basis of the DYA concept, where DYA is an
> acronym for DYnamic Architecture.
> What is its usefulness?
> Developing architecture is a facilitating process
> which never stops, and as such is comparable with
> strategy and human resource policy. Moreover, it must
> not be an autonomous process with a set delivery date,
> and we have to forget architecture as a product which
> will be complete at a certain moment. Architecture
> development must be embedded in the organizational
> change processes and the real deliverable of
> architecture will then be not the final document, but
> the increased adaptability and flexibility of the
> organizational change processes. Architecture and
> business change processes will have a common goal, and
> the benefits of architecture will be greater if the
> context, purpose and use of the architecture are made
> obvious to everyone from the onset. In a nutshell, no
> more architecture for architecture's sake.
> It is quite feasible to develop enterprise
> architecture incrementally. There is no real necessity
> to produce a complete document in one go. Architecture
> consists of several levels, consisting of general
> principles, more specific rules and guidelines, and
> finally detailed models. Architecture can also
> influence several domains, for example: processes,
> organizational structure, information, applications
> and technical infrastructure. Using this multi-tiered
> approach, it becomes possible to assign priorities to
> the architecture development effort: developing those
> aspects which the organization really needs as a first
> priority, and the other aspects at a later date or
> perhaps developing them in a rough outline.
> Architecture development synchronized with
> organizational development. This is what we call the
> 'just-enough, just-in-time' principle, or 'need-driven
> architecture development'.
> The third principle of DYA architecture is the
> understanding that there may be occasions in which
> non-compliance to the architecture is justified. The
> architect's horizon is not only the needs and wants of
> today, but also those of the (near) future. He must
> also consider developments elsewhere in the
> organization. Sometimes the time available to produce
> a result is so short, that all that matters is 'here
> and now'. A solution is needed immediately, and the
> business accepts that it is a dispensable solution
> with a life span of 4 months. These situations have
> occurred in the past and will continue to occur in the
> future. Diverging from the architecture does not
> constitute a mortal sin. Architects should acknowledge
> that these deviations can occur and should be able to
> provide answers to this type of situation. The answer
> can be found in a mechanism to manage and control the
> deviations from the architecture and to minimize the
> negative consequences. This can be done by defining
> two separate development scenarios which can be used
> by a project: one within the architectural framework
> and one outside the architectural framework. In the
> latter case, the project plan should include measures
> for migrating to the architectural framework at a
> later stage.
> The DYA_ concept is built around a model which will
> facilitate organisations in designing and improving
> their architectural processes. The model contains four
> main processes which should be implemented in order to
> derive the full benefit of enterprise architecture:
> • Strategic Dialogue, in which business objectives are
> established and elaborated as business cases;
> • Development with Architecture, in which structural
> solutions are implemented;
> • Development without Architecture, in which the
> throw-away solutions are implemented;
> • Architectural Services, supporting the other three
> processes with principles, guidelines and models.
> Using the DYA_ model as a guideline and the DYA_
> instruments to assist implementation, organisations
> are finally able to make their enterprise architecture
> Further References
> (how to make DYA enterprise architecture work?)
> (DYA towards a new perception of architecture)
> (Just Enough, Just Intime architecture)
> Semantic Web
> What is Semantic Web?
> The Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World
> Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not
> only in natural language, but also in a format that
> can be read and used by software agents, thus
> permitting them to find, share and integrate
> information more easily.
> The Semantic Web is a mesh of information linked up in
> such a way as to be easily processable by machines, on
> a global scale. You can think of it as being an
> efficient way of representing data on the World Wide
> Web, or as a globally linked database.
> The Semantic Web is not about links between web pages.
> The Semantic Web describes the relationships between
> things (like A is a part of B and Y is a member of Z)
> and the properties of things (like size, weight, age,
> and price)
> The Semantic Web was thought up by Tim Berners-Lee,
> W3C director, inventor of the WWW, URIs, HTTP, and
> HTML. It derives from his vision of the Web as a
> universal medium for data, information, and knowledge
> The Semantic Web is about two things. It is about
> common formats for integration and combination of data
> drawn from diverse sources, where on the original Web
> mainly concentrated on the interchange of documents.
> It is also about language for recording how the data
> relates to real world objects. That allows a person,
> or a machine, to start off in one database, and then
> move through an unending set of databases which are
> connected not by wires but by being about the same
> The main power of Semantic Web languages is that any
> one can create one, simply by publishing some RDF that
> describes a set of URIs, what they do, and how they
> should be used. Because we use URIs for each of the
> terms in our languages, we can publish the languages
> easily without fear that they might get misinterpreted
> or stolen, and with the knowledge that anyone in the
> world that has a generic RDF processor can use them.
> What is its usefulness?
> If information about music, cars, and tickets (and
> everything else) were stored in RDF files, intelligent
> web applications could collect information from many
> different sources, combine information, and present it
> to users in a meaningful way.
> Information like this:
> • Car prices from different resellers
> • Information about medicines
> • Plane schedules
> • Spare parts for the industry
> • Information about books (price, pages, editor, year)
> • Who is who
> • Dates of events
> • Computer updates
> Further References
> W3C Semantic Web Activity:
> Semantic Web :
> The Semantic Web: An Introduction :
> What is LAMP?
> LAMP refers to a set of tools (LINUX operating system,
> Apache Web server, MySql database and PHP programming
> language), that allow for rapid deployment and
> development of software applications. LAMP can be
> briefly defined as the open source web platform.
> Perl/Python are other languages used in place of PHP
> and called LAMP system as well.
> Linux- Is a free Unix-type operating system. Linux's
> functionality, adaptability and robustness, has made
> it the main alternative for proprietary UNIX and
> Microsoft operating systems. Linux has been adopted
> worldwide primarily as a server platform and can run
> on most common hardware platforms. The core of the
> system is the LINUX kernel which distinguishes itself
> from others.
> Apache- Apache HTTP Server is aimed at creating a
> robust, commercial-grade, featured, and
> freely-available source code implementation of an HTTP
> (Web) server. Features include compiled modules such
> as SSL support (mod_SSL), URL rewriter (mod_rewrite)
> etc. With the release of Apache 2.0 apache has become
> a robust well documented multi-threaded web server.
> MySql - It is multithreaded, multi-user RDBMS. The
> combination of MySQL's rock solid stability, high
> performance, low overhead and ease of use make it an
> ideal choice for online application. MySQL's pluggable
> storage engines make it easy to get the fastest
> PHP - Known as HyperText Preprocessor, PHP is a
> widely-used general-purpose scripting language that is
> especially suited for Web development and can be
> embedded into HTML. PHP was written as a set of CGI
> binaries in the C programming language. It also has
> improved support for Object-Oriented programming,
> integrated SOAP support, etc. PHP includes a large
> number of free and open source libraries with the core
> What are its advantages/disadvantages?
> Advantages -
> • With no or less licensing costs and using available
> open source libraries brings down the cost of
> development considerably.
> • Very tight integration between PHP and Apache, for
> instance, eliminates the need for application server
> software and in many instances eliminates an entire
> physical server tier.
> • Scalability in handling large amount of load and
> Flexibility during scale up.
> Disadvantages -
> • Non-availability of skilled resources in LAMP.
> • Less support for the application need to depend on
> the community or individual developers for solutions
> or patches for customization.
> Further References
> Wikipedia -
> Apache -
> MySql –
> PHP -
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